labour dispute turkey

In Turkey, a vibrant and dynamic economy, ensuring an effective resolution mechanism for labour disputes is crucial for maintaining a harmonious and productive work environment.

This article explores the labour dispute resolution system in Turkey, highlighting the legal framework, dispute resolution mechanisms, and the challenges faced in achieving a fair and balanced outcome.

Legal Framework

The primary legislation governing labour relations and dispute resolution in Turkey is the Labour Law No. 4857, which outlines the rights and obligations of both employers and employees. This law provides a foundation for establishing a fair and equitable labour dispute resolution system.

Labour dispute resolution in Turkey mechanisms

  1. Collective Bargaining and Mediation: Collective bargaining plays a significant role in resolving labour disputes in Turkey. Trade unions negotiate with employers or employers’ associations to reach collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) that define working conditions, wages, and dispute resolution procedures. If a dispute arises, the parties can seek mediation services provided by the Ministry of Family, Labour, and Social Services. Mediation aims to facilitate negotiations and find a mutually acceptable resolution between the parties.
  2. Arbitration: If mediation fails, parties can resort to arbitration, which is a voluntary and binding alternative dispute resolution method. The Turkish Commercial Code and the Law on International Arbitration provide the legal framework for arbitration. The parties appoint arbitrators who have expertise in labour law, and the decision rendered by the arbitral tribunal is enforceable.
  3. Conciliation Commissions: Conciliation Commissions, established at the provincial level, act as a forum for resolving individual labour disputes. Comprising representatives from employers, workers, and government officials, these commissions aim to mediate disputes and provide recommendations for a fair settlement.
  4. Labour Courts: Labour courts have jurisdiction over individual and collective labour disputes. Employees can file lawsuits against employers in cases of termination, unpaid wages, discrimination, or violation of labour rights. These courts also handle disputes related to the interpretation and application of CBAs. Labour courts aim to provide an impartial and efficient judicial process to ensure fair resolution of disputes.

Challenges and Limitations

While Turkey has established a comprehensive framework for labour dispute resolution, several challenges and limitations persist:

  1. Backlog of cases: Labour courts in Turkey face a significant backlog of cases, leading to delays in resolving disputes. This can create frustration and further escalate conflicts between workers and employers.
  2. Unequal bargaining power: In some cases, employers may have more bargaining power compared to individual employees or small trade unions. This power imbalance can undermine the effectiveness of collective bargaining and dispute resolution processes.
  3. Limited awareness and access to justice: Many workers, particularly those in the informal sector, may be unaware of their rights or lack the resources to access legal remedies. This can result in a lack of formal complaints or an overreliance on informal channels for dispute resolution.
  4. Enforcement of decisions: Despite having robust dispute resolution mechanisms, the enforcement of decisions remains a challenge. Some employers may evade their responsibilities, leading to difficulties in obtaining compensation or reinstatement for workers.


Labour dispute resolution in Turkey operates within a legal framework aimed at balancing the rights of workers and employers. The country provides various mechanisms such as collective bargaining, mediation, arbitration, conciliation commissions, and labour courts to address disputes. However, challenges like case backlog, unequal bargaining power, limited awareness, and enforcement issues need to be addressed to ensure an efficient and fair labour dispute resolution system. Efforts to streamline court processes, raise awareness of labour rights, and strengthen enforcement mechanisms will contribute to a more equitable and harmonious working environment in Turkey.



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